'http':'https';if(!d.getElementById(id)){js=d.createElement(s);js.id=id;js.src=p+"://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js";fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js,fjs);}}(document,"script","twitter-wjs"); Copyright 2020 © National Academy of Sciences. Wilson (1987) links historical and economic factors in his description of the racial division of labor resulting from “decades, even centuries, of discrimination and prejudice” with the result that “because those in the low-wage sector of the economy are more adversely affected by impersonal economic shifts in advanced industrial society, the racial division of labor is reinforced” (p. 12). 2001. 2010. Health and social services expenditures: Associations with health outcomes. The views expressed in this discussion paper are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the authors’ organization or of the Institute of Medicine. Social structure, as embodied in social position, structures individual behaviors and values and therefore affects many of the mediators in the relationship between education and health. Athar, H. M., M. H. Chang, R. A. Hahn, E. Walker, and P. Yoon. 575 0 obj <> endobj 2009. Assets, economic opportunity and toxic stress: A framework for understanding child and educational outcomes. Resources for physical activity participation: Does availability and accessibility differ by neighborhood socioeconomic status? Centers for Disease Control. Healthy, wealthy, and wise: Socioeconomic status, poor health in childhood, and human capital development. 2011. 2014. Shippee, T. P., L. R. Wilkinson, and K. F. Ferraro. Stress and the individual: Mechanisms leading to disease. Health, health risks, and inequalities: An exploratory study of women’s perceptions. Structural violence and structural vulnerability within the risk environment: Theoretical and methodological perspectives for a social epidemiology of HIV risk among injection drug users and sex workers. Health literacy and asthma. Individuals in a social network can relay information, define norms for behavior, and act as modeling agents. In many U.S. cities, life expectancy can vary by as much as 25 years across neighborhoods (Evans et al., 2012). 2006. They found that individual-level indicators of SES explained most of the variation in physical functioning (about 60 percent) but that neighborhood-level measures had a significant influence as well.) Powell, L. M., S. Slater, F. J. Chaloupka, and D. Harper. 592 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[575 37]/Info 574 0 R/Length 95/Prev 756029/Root 576 0 R/Size 612/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Alameda County Public Health Department. The collective dynamics of smoking in a large social network. h�b```�R�=B ���� (The average ratio of social to health expenditures in OECD countries from 1995 to 2005 was 2.0; the ratio in the U.S. was 0.91. Calnan, M. and Johnson, B. The effects of ACEs on the developing brain and on behavior can affect performance in school and explain setbacks in education—but it can also affect health outcomes. 1997. The Census Bureau reports that the Gini coefficient, which measures income inequality, has risen from 0.394 in 1970 to 0.469 in 2010; the share of household income earned by the bottom quintile was 3.3 percent in 2010, compared to 50.2 percent among the top quintile. Individuals with higher incomes have more resources to purchase healthy foods, to afford the time and expenses associated with regular physical activity, to have easy transportation to health care facilities or work locations, and to afford health care expenses. Economic vulnerability can affect health through a cascade effect on the ability to acquire resources that are important to health: food, stable housing, transportation, insurance, and health care (Braveman, et al., 2011). Brownell, K. D., R. Kersh, D. S. Ludwig, R. C. Post, R. M. Puhl, M. B. Schwartz, and W. C. Willett. However, better health could help people become more educated. The paper is intended to help inform and stimulate discussion. We may think of these returns from education, such as higher earnings, as subsequent “downstream” benefits of education. Sum, A., I. Khatiwada, J. McLaughlin, and S. Palma. 2010. Duncan, G. J., J. Brooks-Gunn, and P. K. Klebanov. Although this can occur throughout the life course, increasing attention is being placed on the role of these factors on children before they reach school age. 2009. 2006. Skill formation and the economics of investing in disadvantaged children. Evans, G. W., and P. Kim. 2003. University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute. The drop at high school graduation points to the importance of obtaining credentials in addition to the other benefits associated with educational attainment. DeNavas-Walt, C., B. D. Proctor, and J. C. Smith. Indeed, income inequalities in the United States are significant and have become more pronounced, with wages at the lower or middle of the income distribution stagnating or falling while those at the top continue to rise. Cutler and Lleras-Muney (2010) report that increased cognitive ability resulting from education contributes significantly to the education gradient in health behaviors. Nevertheless, prospective studies that documented ACEs contemporaneously during childhood have also documented higher rates of disease when the children were followed into adulthood. 2006. Discrimination and racial disparities in health: Evidence and needed research. h�bbd```b``.���`�D�ĂH���f�H�D��)0�Lf�H�w r�1ɤ $u�ŵ�����L�L�@"@hN�g���=@� vAE Jemal, A., E. Ward, R. N. Anderson, T. Murray, and M. J. Thun. (According to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System [BRFSS] data, 27 percent of adults with less than a high school education reported not being able to see a physician because of cost, compared to 18 percent and 8 percent of high school and college graduates, respectively [CDC, 2014]).

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