World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. However, different stakeholders appeared to adopt diverse and often conflicting views of what constitutes evidence, as their understanding of the concept seemed to reflect their personal experiences. Health policy-makers’ perceptions of their use of evidence: a systematic review. In Nigeria, the FMOH is responsible for policymaking and health policies are made at that level by senior government officials with significant contributions from partners and stakeholders in the public and private sectors. 2000;1:140–4. This section gives an overview of the study design and background, describing the conceptual framework used in the study and giving a brief description of the three policies and the data collection and analytical methods used. Rycroft-Malone JO. Christopher J, Lisa A. The fact that some respondents – such as influential government policymakers – felt this form of evidence was very important, was synonymous with its use in the drafting and writing up of the policy, even though other stakeholders, like academics and CSO’s, felt less strongly about this form of evidence. Accessed 5 December 2014. 261389. The World Health Report 2000: Health Systems – Improving Performance. This is because policy which is based on evidence is seen to produce better outcomes. J Nurs Manag. (2003) Accessed 15th Oct 2015. The data was collected between December 2012 and July 2013. Evidence was used more if it was perceived to be context-specific, accessible and timely. New York: Routledge; 1994. When we saw from literature review what other countries are doing, we were challenged to do something” (HRH, Policymaker). The objectives of the WHO oral health programme WHO, 2009. Google Scholar. Google Scholar. Evidence has been described in the literature as “what constitutes actual or asserted facts planned for use in support of a conclusion” [15]. All audio recorded interviews were transcribed by the interviewers. Lavis JN, Posada FB, Haines A, Osei E. Use of research to inform public policymaking. FMOH, WHO). 2013;1(8):34–43. World Health Organization. In addition, journal publications from the Lancet series in IMNCH policy [33] and WHO publications in OH policy [34] were used to a large extent in the problem definition stage and helped buttress the data obtained from the surveys. <>>> The Bellagio study group on child survival. Thus, only evidence considered reliable or accessible and truly reflecting which evidence the policy actors felt was the best was used to establish the need for policy development. The actors’ understandings of evidence appear also to have influenced which evidence was used. This was a retrospective cross-sectional qualitative study using a case study approach. by indicating effectiveness of a particular intervention within the same or similar context) or indirectly (e.g. These mechanisms include consultations with multi-stakeholder groups and expert working group meetings. The expert consultations brought in a practical aspect to the policy development because most of the evidence generated from this source was based on hands-on experience of the stakeholders, which added value to the evidence obtained, as illustrated below: “What happened was there was a stakeholders meeting and we got a lot of information from them, sat down together to brain storm on the information and that was what was utilized in the final writing” (OH, Policymaker). The utilization of evidence in each of these three policies was influenced by different factors from these three broad areas (Table 5). Evidence-informed practice: from individual to context. The respondents were assured of confidentiality and anonymity during recruitment. Expert recommendations and citation pearling were also used to identify and retrieve documents. Evidence-based health policy: context and utilisation. The informal type of evidence used, which was the expert consultation meetings, emphasized the fact that evidence was subject to what the actors considered important and relevant and also what they perceived evidence to be. The necessity for a health systems reform in Nigeria. PubMed  Ministers and officials regularly invoke the phrase ‘learning the lessons from history’ without appreciating what it actually means. accessed 6th October 2013. After several failed attempts in the 1990’s and early 2000’s at developing and obtaining final approval for an OH policy, a National OH Policy was developed and finally adopted in November 2012 in Nigeria. A coding tree was used to code the transcriptions according to relevant thematic areas, such as (1) respondents perception of evidence, (2) types and characteristics of evidence, (3) role of different types of evidence, (4) actors, and (5) contextual influences on evidence and policy processes. Policymakers and influencers, on the other hand, need to exercise some judgment about priorities and preferences in the selection of available evidence for policymaking. In addition to these characteristics, comprehensiveness, context relevance, and representativeness of evidence were considered characteristics of robust evidence in our study. Health Res Policy Sys 13, 46 (2015). Kothari A, Boyko J, Campbell-Davison A. Global programme on evidence for health policy. Accessed 24 November 2014. Across the three case studies, participants perceived evidence processes as a formal process of gathering information to inform decisions.

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