Environ Sci Technol 20:717–725. The linear model and the Freundlich model were used to describe the sorption data, because the sorption isotherm patterns were shown almost linear. Environmental Science & Technology 2004 , 38 … Common-Ion Effect. J Hazard Mater 168:602–608. The reaction proceeded for 2 h at 25 °C in an orbital shaker. Ibuprofen has been present in most of the rivers so it can be detected in estuaries and ocean water. The ibuprofen sorption was remarkably interrupted by citrate addition at only 0.01 M and at high concentration of urea (1.0 M). & Kim, H.T. Entropy changes have to do with changes from a relatively ordered state to a more disordered one or the reverse. d is the distribution coefficient in the linear model. One milliliter of supernatant was decanted from the centrifugation and mixed with 10 mL of liquid scintillation cocktail (Ultima Gold, Sigma). The pH of the electrolyte solution was adjusted to 4.0 by acetate buffer solution (0.01 M) and to 7.0 by phosphate buffer containing 6.74 g/L K2HPO4 + 8.34 g/L KH2PO4. Some organic compounds dissolve very well in water and some are not. doi:10.1021/es00149a011, Wu W, Sun H (2010) Sorption-desorption hysteresis of phenanthrene—effect of nanopores, solute concentration, and salinity. Although organic and mineral contents are not important in PPCP sorption because of the presence of functional groups in PPCP molecules (Pan et al. And the initial pH of the solution without pH adjusting is 5.3 that is similar to pKa (5.2) of ibuprofen. The linear model is expressed as follows: where C (mg/L) is the aqueous-phase equilibrium concentration, q (mg/kg) is the solid-phase equilibrium concentration, and K Is pH a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration? Environ Sci Pollut Res 23, 22882–22889 (2016). Mar Chem 77:263–275. The presence of an acidic -CO2H or basic -NH2 functional groups2 in a water-soluble compound can be detected by low or high pH, respectively, of the solution. Gu et al. The solubility of many compounds depends strongly on the pH of the solution. Bui and Choi (2009) suggested that the pharmaceuticals are sorbed onto soil or sediment by hydrogen bonding between carboxyl groups of pharmaceuticals and silanol groups of soil or sediment particles which is in accordance with this study. This result suggests that ibuprofen sorption can be affected by “salting out effect” (Gu et al. d values at pH 4, 5.3, and 7 are 6.8, 3.3, and 0.1 L/kg, and K doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.08.028, Hilton MJ, Thomas KV, Ashton D (2003) Targeted monitoring programme for pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. In this study, sorption of ibuprofen (pKa 5.2) onto sediment was performed at acidic (pH 4), around pKa (pH 5.3), and at neutral pH (pH 7). Effects of pH, dissolved organic matter, and salinity on ibuprofen sorption on sediment Sanghwa Oh1 & Won Sik Shin 2 & Hong Tae Kim3 Received: 14 March 2016/Accepted: 22 August 2016/Published online: 29 August 2016 # The Author(s) 2016. Citrate has three carboxyl groups. 2005). (mg/kg) onto sediment was determined using the following equation (Amin 2008; Bajpai and Bhowmik 2010): where C The solubility of the #"CaCO"_3# decreases. Ibuprofen exists in the neutral form at pH 4, the neutral/anionic form at pKa, and the anionic form at pH 7. In addition, the solubility of simple binary compounds such as oxides and sulfides, both strong bases, is often dependent on pH. d without urea addition but at 1.0 M urea, K The radioactivity of 14C-ibuprofen was determined by a liquid scintillation counter (LSC; EG&G Wallac Co., 1220 Quantulus). In this study, at pH 4 below pKa, the neutral ibuprofen was sorbed via non-electrostatic interaction with sediment surface. Chemosphere 66:1494–1501. The common-ion effect is a term that describes the decrease in solubility of an ionic compound when a salt that contains an ion that already exists in the chemical equilibrium is added to the mixture. J Appl Polym Sci 117:3615–3622. In comparison with single-solute sorptions, K Bi-solute competitive sorption experiments for ibuprofen and salicylic acid were performed. Ibuprofen sorption isotherm onto sediment at pH 4, 5.3, and 7. Amin NL (2008) Removal of reactive dye from aqueous solutions by the adsorption onto activated carbons prepared from sugarcane bagasse pith. d (and K For example, the anion in many sparingly soluble salts is the conjugate base of a weak acid that may become protonated in solution. Moreover, from 0.01 to 0.1 M of urea concentration, K Article  In the case of ibuprofen (pKa = 5.2), the ibuprofen exists as neutral species at pH < pKa, coexists as neutral and anionic species at pH ≈ pKa, and exists as anion species at pH > pKa. Effects of pH, dissolved organic matter, and salinity on ibuprofen sorption on sediment. We conducted sorption isotherm of ibuprofen onto sediment in the presence of citrate and urea with 0 to 1.0 M in solution to estimate the effect of citrate and urea on ibuprofen sorption (Fig. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.12.042, Sparks DL, Page AL, Helmke PA, Loeppert RH, Soltanpour PN, Tabatabai MA, Johnston CT, Sumner ME (1996) Methods of soil analysis. Soil Science Society of America, Inc. USA, Ternes TA (1998) Occurrence of drugs in German sewage treatment plants and rivers. Therefore, if sediment is acidified, the ibuprofen changes its form from anionic to neutral that can be easily sorbed onto the sediment. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00076-7, Wu S, Gschwend PM (1986) Sorption kinetics of hydrophobic organic compounds to natural sediments and soils. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2007.01.203, CAS  There was a synergistic effect on ibuprofen sorption. 10H2O (Sigma Chemical Co., 99.5–105.0 %) before each sorption experiment. Ionizable compounds, like aniline, butyric acid, diethylamine, fumaric acid, and phenol, should have at least some water solubility, affected by pH, because of acid-base reaction. This indicates that the sorption of ibuprofen and salicylic acid was enhanced as concentrations of them increased. Single- and bi-solute sorption isotherm is depicted in Fig. d and K The fitted parameters of linear and Freundlich models are also summarized in Table 3. (2007) observed that PPCPs could bind with DOM in a complicated way because of the presence of functional groups. Salinity also enhanced ibuprofen sorption. #"Zn(OH)"_2# is a sparingly soluble base. Chlorine water frees the bromine and iodine atoms as a gas. 2013). Bases "Zn(OH)"_2 is a sparingly soluble base. d ratio between bi-solute sorption and single-solute sorption was 1.41 for ibuprofen and 1.19 for salicylic acid, respectively. (2010) also reported that the increase in salinity results in a decrease in the solubility of organic compounds and thus an increase in sorption coefficient. R&D Technical Report P6-012/06/TR. How do pH values of acids and bases differ? Table 2 shows that K doi:10.1016/j.cej.2013.03.069, Pan B, Ning P, Xing B (2009) Part V—sorption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products. To estimate the salinity effect on ibuprofen sorption, the sorption experiment was also conducted at 0, 10, 20, and 30 ppt of salinity (0, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 g/L NaCl). For example, the anion in many sparingly soluble salts is the conjugate base of a weak acid that may become protonated in solution. Solubility is Affected by pH. The sorption model parameters were determined by using a commercial software package, Table Curve 2D® (version 5.0, SPSS, Inc.). (2013) also reported that log K c, d Urea. Google Scholar, Bajpai SK, Bhowmik M (2010) Adsorption of diclofenac sodium from aqueous solution using polyaniline as a potential sorbent. Figure 2 shows the effect of pH on the sorption of ibuprofen onto the sediment at pH 4, 5.3, and 7, and Table 1 presents parameters of the linear and the Freundlich models fitting experimental data. It indicates that net charge of the sediment is positive when pH is lower than the pzc but negative at higher pH. 2 of Freundlich model is almost the same but slightly higher than those of the linear model. Mar Chem 96:21–34. The Effect of pH on Solubility. This indicates that ibuprofen sorption is strongly affected by its hydrophobicity (neutral form). #"OH"^"-"# ions are removed from solution. This experiment was conducted at pH 4 where neutral form of ibuprofen exists, indicating that there is a high possibility of ibuprofen trapped in sediments acidified in estuary or coastal conditions due to high salinity. Google Scholar, Bowman JC, Zhou JL, Readman JW (2002) Sediment-water interactions of natural oestrogens under estuarine conditions. Benzaldehyde has a polar group that will give it some water solubility.

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